Analyzing disease status is a way to understand how to counter its spread and cure it. The illnesses analyzed in this report are Ebola, Leishmaniasis, and Hepatitis. The paper will focus on the organisms causing the disease, their current distribution and prevalence, the environmental and social factors that contribute to their spread, and their treatments.
Organisms Causing Ebola, Leishmaniasis, and Hepatitis
Each of the three diseases discussed in the reports is caused by its own type of organism. Ebola is caused by the virus belonging to the genus Ebolavirus, the Florida family, and is common in Guinea and the Republic of Congo (“Ebola Virus Disease”). The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads to individuals through human-to-human transmission. Leishmaniasis is common in Brazil, East Africa, and India. The organism causing the disease is the protozoan Leishmania parasites and transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies (“Leishmaniasis”). Hepatitis is a global public health challenge and has a significant burden on communities across the world. The disease was selected for this report as one of the common conditions in St Louis, Mo. Hepatitis occurs in five forms, Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E (World Health Organization). Nonetheless, Hepatitis B is the most common type of infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is passed from person to person through blood, semen, or other body fluids.
The Current Distribution and Prevalence of Ebola, Leishmaniasis, and Hepatitis
The World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on the current distribution and prevalence of all three diseases discussed. Many regions with recorded Ebola cases have currently decreased the number of new infections, but the 2018-2019 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo led to increased infections (“Ebola Virus Disease”). Regarding Leishmaniasis, an estimated 700 000 to 1 million new cases occur annually, most of them in Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Kenya, Nepal, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan (“Leishmaniasis”). As for Hepatitis, about 2.3 billion people worldwide are infected with a particular type of the disease (World Health Organization). WHO has also stated that the most affected regions are the Eastern Mediterranean and the European, with cases also occurring frequently in China.
Environmental and Social Factors Contributing to the Spread of the Diseases
The spread of Ebola is influenced by close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected animals, such as fruit bats. Direct contact with blood or body fluids has led to the spread of Ebola among humans. Vaccines were introduced, and the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine was used in the 2018-2019 Ebola outbreak in DRC (“Ebola Virus Disease”). Additionally, supportive care-rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids and treatment of specific symptoms improves survival rates.
In the case of Leishmaniasis, ecological factors impact the transmission of the disease by affecting the sandflies’ reproduction. For instance, building dams can lead to an increase in the sandflies population due to its effect on the species’ breeding areas (“Leishmaniasis”). The disease is treatable and requires an immunocompetent system since medicines cannot get the parasite out of the body. There is also a risk of relapse if immunosuppression occurs.
Hepatitis B is common in many regions as it is spread through body fluid. Sex with an infected partner and mother-to-child infection are common ways of spreading it. Antiviral medications can improve the infected people’s condition, and Tenofovir has been used to slow the virus’s ability to damage the liver (World Health Organization). Additionally, timely hepatitis B birth-dose vaccination has proven effective in preventing the transmission of the virus from mother to infant at birth.
Assessing the disease status is crucial for understanding its etiology, spread, and treatment. Etiology is clear for Ebola virus disease, Leishmaniasis, and Hepatitis alike, and the organisms causing them are well-known to the medical community. Each of the diseases is mainly prevalent in its own region, although they also occur in other places. There are also treatments to prevent the diseases or mitigate their effects, but, in the case of all three, the most important factor in this respect should be the education on their transmission mechanisms.
“Ebola Virus Disease.” World Health Organization, 2020. Web.
“Leishmaniasis.” World Health Organization, 2020. Web.
World Health Organization. “Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021.”2016. Adobe PDF file.