Knowledge of Team Roles and Dynamics
At a glance, few industries match the scale of healthcare, with a significant population estimated to have at least one healthcare encounter in a year. Usually, a single visit needs collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of administrative personnel, clinicians, or nurses (Jovanović et al., 2020). A team refers to a group of people working together to deliver mutually accountable services (Rydenfält et al., 2017). Members share common goals and rely on one another to attain them and, since accountability is a priority, integrating with one another is a paramount responsibility. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how teamwork applies in a healthcare clinical practice such as radiography by integrating various Tuckman’s and Belbin’s models.
Teamwork in Radiography Field
Similar to other clinical settings, in radiography, teamwork is the key to ensuring patient safety (Jovanović et al., 2020). Medical professionals in radiology departments consider safety paramount by lowering the dangers of ionizing radiation. The dose received by patients has to be reasonably low and achievable for the best possible outcomes. For that to happen, a smooth partnership between diverse experts is needed, since not only a radiologist is required in the imaging process but also physicists, general practitioners, and radiographers (Rydenfält et al., 2017). Forming teamwork is a process, and various aspects come into play, such as the multiple tasks to be performed.
Communication is one aspect that plays a major role in team collaboration in the radiography sector regarding decision-making. Not all professionals may be in direct contact with one another, and in that way, transparent and easily accessible tools are required to facilitate interaction and justifications of clinical procedures (Real et al., 2017; Yanchus et al., 2017). For example, a team member can take up the role of a facilitator to provide the department with the necessary tool.
Teamwork in radiography is essential in tackling rising human or technical errors (Rydenfält et al., 2017). Possibly, a radiographer or radiologist can apply one or more close others for a similar examination without knowing. The issue of using the wrong protocol for scan need to be noticed and addressed effectively. Tools for profound data analysis and to provide key insights are required to solve issues.
A professional team believes that making the right decision is achievable by working intensively together, which is why teamwork is in the foreground in problem solutions (Rydenfält et al., 2017). All medical professionals take up moral responsibility to avail high-level care to individuals. By working together, there are minimal communication issues, and human or technological mistakes (Amudha et al., 2018). Consequently, patient safety is achieved with an excellent level of satisfaction.
Theory Approach to Teamwork
One relevant theory that applies in radiography teamwork philosophy is by Tuckman on group stages (Jones, 2019). Typically, for a team to be effective, members must work together and contribute collectively to project goals (Kirk-Lawlor & Allred, 2017). However, that does not happen automatically, as it takes time and a process to develop a functional group. Most people have experienced how it feels when placed in a school or work team for an assignment. At first, people sit and stare at each other, wondering how to begin, and in such a situation they cannot be considered a team. With time, individuals start to know each other, develop expectations, realize how to divide roles, and become aware of how to coordinate. In that process, members begin to operate as a team but not as a collection of persons.
Working together as a team is referred to as development, and there are vital stages involved before people start to work together. According to Bruce Tuckman, the five stages of the team growth process are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning (Hensley et al., 2017; Lacerenza et al., 2018). A radiography team must process these stages as follows: first, members take an orientation exercise as the formation process and familiarize themselves with the situation. Questions are asked to clarify roles and know where an individual fit. In the storming stage, members can disagree with goals but work hard to overcome obstacles by accepting available differences. In the performing phase, consensus and cooperation are well defined, proving team maturity after undergoing a process of establishing goals, norms, and routines (Jones, 2019).
A clear and stable structure indicates that radiographers are committed to the team’s mission of serving patients. In the event of arising problems, they are dealt with constructively. At the last stage, adjourning, most goals have been accomplished, such as delivering high-quality care with honesty, integrity, and compassion.
Embracing Tuckman’s model in the radiographer team process helps to understand a team better and the stages it is at, know what needs to be done, and schedule a review of progress (Jones, 2019). The model has strength in clarifying species stages, helps learn more about tensions and how to solve them, strengthening members’ relationships as well as punt ways to solve uncertainties (Schmutz et al., 2019). However, there are limitations to adopting this framework, such as difficulties in maintaining stages one by one. The model does not point direction if the storming phase does not end, and Tuckman fails to explain why the group changes with time.
Another approach that explains the relevance of teamwork in radiography is Belbin’s theory, which points out team roles’ personalities and how they can affect performance or care (Twardochleb, 2017). The framework describes the role of a team as the tendency to behave in particular ways. With that, there are key action-oriented roles, people-oriented and cerebral roles. Action-oriented professionals such as expert radiographers, and implementers do the work and challenge a team to improve (Twardochleb, 2017). Such individuals are dynamic and often question norms finding the best approach to deal with situations.
Examples of people-oriented roles include those taken by coordinators, team workers, or resource investigators. Individuals in such role prioritize relationship and bud great rapport that enable members to work motivated.
In a people-based team approach, members welcome creativity, innovation, and fresh thinking. By incorporating new ideas in radiography work, patient outcome is achieved, but care is provided safely. Belbin’s model also points out another team role category: thought-oriented people such as specialists who have unique knowledge needed to do a task (Jovanović et al., 2020). Normally, experts pride themselves on abilities and work to maintain professionalism in that their job within a team is to be experts in particular areas. The radiography clinical team can comprise individuals with role models from the category, as mentioned above.
Specifically, a team can have completer-finisher who see projects done thoroughly, teamwork for support or perception aid, and specialists such as radiologists or radiographers (Twardochleb, 2017). Furthermore, it should be noted that an ideal team has a balance of the pointed roles since personalities and expertise are unique but useful. A strong team has a coordinator, plant, monitor, evaluator, several implementers, team workers as well as resource investigators. Not to forget that roles develop and mature while changing with experiences or conscious attention.
A significant strength of Belbin’s model is that it suggests developing abilities and ensuring management of weaknesses once medical professionals know their role within a team. Team leaders in a clinical setting can use Belbin’s approach to form a balanced team in the radiography department (Twardochleb, 2017). However, notable limitations are that the framework cannot be used or applied in measuring behaviors and personalities; it is designed for workplace settings and may impose cultural biases.
A team role and dynamic influence an organizational department’s efficiency through enhanced commitment, knowledge sharing, and good communication. A willingness to share information, diversity inclusion, and roles such as facilitation or implementation make individuals commit to a task by supporting one another (Jovanović et al., 2020). On the other hand, there are issues to encounter in a team, including lack of trust, low transparency, and holding information (Bell et al., 2018). They can affect tasks undertaken due to an unclear understanding of directions. In the event that group members fail to share information timely or hesitate to contribute ideas, the group performance is likely to become ineffective and tasks cannot be completed per the set deadline.
Dysfunctional teams can improve by practicing good listening skills, building appreciation and rapport, practicing question asking, and embracing reductive conflicts. Some example of legislation requirement includes policies governing the hiring process, which can impact team performance through reinforcement with skills (Twardochleb, 2017). In case organizational policies promote diversity and inclusion issues, it means team members will involve in working with people from different backgrounds, the impact can be positive in terms of added skills from a different cultural background or negatively create communication hindrance.
In conclusion, teamwork in clinical settings such as radiography can lay out essential elements to deliver quality care and effective imaging services. Typically, the overall goal of healthcare services is better outcomes, and obtaining correct as well as a timely diagnosis is paramount. Studies point out that medical professional teams that function efficiently to provide quality patient care and member have a low burnout level. Adopting team formation models such as Tuckman’s or Belbin’s approaches helps design a radiography team that excels in justifying examination requests, radiation protection, imaging acquisition, and reporting.
In this section, I will apply Graham Gibbs’ model of reflection to give a description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, and conclusion about my team experience (Ardian et al., 2019). First, an experience I have had about teamwork is when I was a member of a group of about forty employees in a particular organization. The team included professionals such as production operators, quality assurance, general laborers, and assurance tech. A primary task was to ensure the team operated cohesively by providing an open door-to-door policy, and I spent great days observing and helping. From that, I acquired a handful of leadership and persuasion abilities and learned a few aspects of teamwork.
I think working as a team can be a delightful and challenging experience. I related well with team members, and we maintained smooth paces when completing individual tasks. An effective connection was present due to the communication and feedback approach we held when clarifying and sharing information (Ardian et al., 2019). We did not give each other opportunities to feel left out or angry as I recognized that conflicts could potentially arise (McKibben, 2017).
The best part of the team was the division of tasks, where everyone knows what to do. Additionally, members kept each other informed on matters such as absenteeism to share the extra work. In case of such inconveniences where one or two members were absent, I shared emails with everyone updating them with the information and how they would fill the created gap. People worked according to deadlines and in perfect synchronization without disturbing or waiting for others to complete tasks.
In evaluating the experience, brainstorming helped generate ideas, and together we embraced dynamics as support. I did better as a team member and a leader, letting members formulate working strategies (Ardian et al., 2019). I learned that people have relevant views and can impact group performance when they are allowed a chance to give insights. Once someone is in a role, followers want to hear from them, but I did not let that happen.
I believed everyone had something to offer, and I was amazed by the number of information individuals shared, especially concerning communication approaches. I emulated and utilized active listening to give each person a chance to air opinions. Teamwork collaboration was proved by sharing credit for good ideas and acknowledging people’s skills, creativity, and contributions (Ardian et al., 2019). I admitted people’s feelings, concerns, and thoughts for better working relationships.
By analysis, I have much to contribute to a team in clinical settings. I love to help others when they are stuck and resolve emerging issues through effective communication. I think proper conversations in a group are a pillar to building a shared purpose among members. A friendly interaction frequently helps individuals formulate a sense of belonging (Bell et al., 2018). In that way, members can work to their maximum while in a place where they feel valued, appreciated, and respected. A strong feeling of connection to a group starts by realizing people’s views and showing support from experience.
In a complex healthcare system, effective teamwork is vital for ensuring patient safety as errors caused by miscommunications are minimized. Experts agree that communication skills are key to providing quality services (Hassan, 2018). Every system has a tendency to break down, and this applies to human interactions as well. In that way, without a consistent and preventative approach to keep individuals performing best, a team is likely to disagree. The best way to apply skills learned about teamwork in a clinical setting is to have a clear communication goal that will ensure individuals maintain fluid interactions and support one another amid crisis (Ardian et al., 2019).
The objectives set must enhance mutual understanding as well as a collaboration by defining challenges that might come up and how to handle them (Salas et al., 2018). For example, if a diagnostic issue occurs, a team member should know who to approach for ideas, views, suggestions, or solutions to neutralize the problem. The overall purpose is to ensure patients’ safety and outcomes are achieved; hence, individuals have what it takes to do the tasks right.
Within a team, it is paramount to assign roles for greater collaboration. Otherwise, team members can duplicate efforts in certain areas and leave gaps for others. As such, that would be not only a wastage of time but also a potential for patient harm. Effective collaboration is that which embraces an interdisciplinary where members bring their ideas of expertise to avail the best care possible (Sinha, 2017; Sangaleti et al., 2017). In case conflicts arise, I should handle them proactively by listening, and embracing resolution approaches to remind people of the main goal.
Following the social enterprise activities, my teamwork approach changed by becoming more engaging and willing to lead individuals in group-based projects. Initially, I hesitated to take leadership, fearing that it required much commitment. I realized that perhaps I do not need to do much as a team leader but facilitate interactive platforms to contribute inputs. My group work peers acquired team-leading value, which includes integrity, humility, service, authenticity, wisdom, and readiness to make a difference (Ardian et al., 2019). In return, I learned from members the value of sharing, active listening, and courage. With that, I will improve clinical practice from my experience by increasing conversation transparency and creating neutral zones to avoid conflicts.
To conclude, teamwork is geared toward good communication and a collaborative care plan. All members want to feel useful, and their ideas must be evaluated or applied where possible. To exhaust the purpose of a professional team, members should be encouraged to ask questions, seek clarifications, discuss potential solutions or provide concerns. Tuckman and Belbin’s model can guide effective team formation when working in a demanding clinical field such as radiography.
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