Pressure injuries in the elderly are a serious problem requiring much consideration and insight. Medical professionals, including both doctors and nurses, must utilize evidence-based current-day approaches as a way to mitigate the possible harm done to their patients. The field of pressure injury research and prevention develops with the introduction of new methodologies and technology, requiring healthcare workers to overview the newest available data on the subject. This literature review will focus on analyzing and summarizing the available data regarding pressure injuries released within the recent time period.
Methods of Searching
The literature review was conducted using electronic sources of information and the internet. Relevant medical journals were consulted to gather the data used. Google Scholar was the primary search engine to find the featured articles, in addition to PubMed. Keywords were used to find the particular works that will be discussed, including such terms as – pressure injury, pressure injury training, pressure injury nursing, and others. All available information was additionally sorted based on language and the year of publication.
Review of the Literature
Risk factors for pressure ulcers include suspected deep tissue injury in nursing home facility residents
The literature review was organized and prepared for nurses and other healthcare professionals working with an interest in skincare and pressure wounds. The datasets from 2012 were analyzed as a result of the review, taking data from Medicaid-certified NH residents in the US. In the overview of the available information, the total number of patients that have developed PrU (Pressure ulcer) of varying stages of severity is a little over 10% (Ahn et al., 2016). Among notable correlations and findings, it was shown that patients of color, specifically black and Hispanic people, were affected by pressure-related injury more often than their counterparts. Additionally, researchers note that the occurrence of pressure-related trauma further exacerbates other negative processes, including system failure, breaches in skin integrity, infection, and disease (Ahn et al., 2016). The review is useful in identifying some of the more common problems associated with a pressure injury and devising ways of countering them in medical practice.
Risk factors for pressure injuries among critical care patients: A systematic review
The study identifies and discusses some of the independent risk factors associated with pressure ulcers, taking a look at the critical care population in particular. Researchers used existing databases as the main source for their search, reviewing 1753 abstracts in total (Alderden et al., 2017). As a result, the authors have found that a number of people in critical care are presented with a higher risk of developing pressure ulcers. In particular, the elderly, those with altered mobility, poor perfusion, or receiving a vasopressor infusion come at risk (Alderden et al., 2017). This information is particularly necessary when working with older patients and prioritizing care, as well as predicting possible future risks for the patients.
A qualitative study of the thoughts and experiences of hospital nurses providing pressure injury prevention and management
The work focuses on examining the experiences of nurses during the process of caring for patients with a possible pressure injury. Healthcare workers tasked with both prevention and management of pressure-related damage were interviewed as a part of the study, involving 20 nurses in the process (Barakat-Johnson et al., 2019). The insights gathered from nurses reinforce the position of pressure trauma as an important part of the entire patient care process. The task of ensuring patient wellness and safety involves protection against pressure injury and management of its occurrence in patients. While it is important to recognize the existence of this problem, its solution lies in complex and systematic care for patients, the authors note. The insight provided can be beneficial to nurses and healthcare workers while forming their perspectives on the role of pressure injury in the healthcare delivery process.
Pressure injury risk factors in critical care patients: A descriptive analysis
Similar to the research review analyzed previously, this work focuses on the topic of pressure injury in critical care. The study, however, identified other potential risk factors among its observed demographic. The work examined 57 critically ill patients administered to an intensive care unit. Immobility, septic shock, vasopressor use, head-of-bed elevation greater than 30° sedation, and mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours were all noted as significant risks for developing pressure-related injuries in patients (Cox et al., 2018). The results found by the authors are said to largely correlate with existing studies, and further highlight the importance such factors as immobility and elevation have on the development of pressure trauma. Nurse professionals should take risks into account during their practice to avoid lasting or unpreventable damage to the skin tissue of patients.
Nurses’ knowledge to pressure ulcer prevention in public hospitals in Wollega: a cross-sectional study design.
The study, taking 212 randomly selected nurses for its evaluation, concerned itself with testing the competency and knowledge of medical professionals on the topic of PrU prevention. Each of the participating nurses was administered a test to evaluate their knowledge of the subject, with the results being compared with mean averages and results of other tests. The results of the evaluation showed that more than 90% of all participants had inadequate knowledge of ulcer prevention, putting patients’ well-being at risk (Ebi, 2019). The lack of education and training received by medical professionals was also noted (Ebi, 2019). The results of this study highlight the need for better pressure injury education, awareness, and knowledge among medical care professionals.
Evidence-Based Practice for Nursing: Evaluating the Evidence. Research Guides
The resource in question is a guide on the best ways of integrating and utilizing evidence-based practices in nursing. As the field constantly grows and evolves. Nursing professionals need to improve their knowledge to keep up with the constant demands of patient care. By utilizing patient-centered, evidence-based approaches and evaluating recent data in all aspects of their practice, nursing professionals can come to better standards of professional excellence (ECU Libraries, 2021). This resource is vital to understanding the need for better education in pressure ulcer prevention and management.
Prevalence and Analysis of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries: Results from the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey
This particular study examined the prevalence and occurrence of pressure-related injury caused by the use of medical devices. Data from 2016 on the subject was put to review, including data on 102,865 patients in the US. It is noted that medical device-related pressure injury occurs much faster than normal, requiring significant attention from medical professionals (Kayser et al., 2018). The prevention and monitoring of different types of pressure injury are crucial for the work of a nurse and the continued maintenance of patient health. The review is helpful in informing nurses on the potential dangers of medical equipment in relation to ulcers.
A blinded clinical study using a subepidermal moisture capacitance measurement device for early detection of pressure injuries
The work talks about the use and effectiveness of a novel way to recognize and detect pressure injuries early. Using a measurement called subepidermal moisture (SEM), the authors compare its effectiveness to the standard method of using clinical skin and tissue assessment (STA) for this purpose (Okonkwo et al., 2020). While the limitations of the study are acknowledged, the authors note that the new approach has a lot of potentials to be used complementarily with STA to allow for faster and more accurate monitoring of pressure injury. The usage of different monitoring methods can be beneficial to better and faster recognition of pressure injury, as well as the healthcare delivery process as a whole. This data will be useful to nurses working in pressure injury prevention.
Back to Basics: Preventing Perioperative Pressure Injuries
The article in question discusses the prevalence of pressure injury in preoperative patients and patients during operations, both of which have a significant risk of developing the condition. Due to the particular circumstances surrounding medical operations, patients participating often suffer from a higher risk of developing pressure injuries (Spruce, 2017). Medical operations are an inescapable part of healthcare delivery and should be made as safe as possible with the use of available technology and skills. For the elderly population, the prevention of medical operation-related pressure injuries is even more important due to the population’s fragility. It is crucial for medical professionals to recognize and remedy this trend with proper prevention measures and care.
Pressure injury prevention and management practices among nurses: A realist case study
The work discusses the role different nurses play in preventing, monitoring, managing, and mitigating the effects of pressure injury. While many nursing studies and articles provide recommendations based on the best practices for assisting patients, taking into account a more grounded perspective of the subject is also necessary. Each professional nurse works to solve their own particular part of the problem, participating in the same medical environment (Teo et al., 2018). It is important for all nursing professionals to work together to achieve the common goal of promoting patient wellbeing and health. Nurses need to cooperate on developing the best evidence-based practices and approaches for tackling this issue on an intrinsic level.
Literature has shown that medical professionals working today often do not have the sufficient qualifications and knowledge to properly care for patients with pressure-related injuries. Reviews have demonstrated that the level of knowledge, education, and practice among nurses is extremely low, putting the health of their patients in danger (Ebi et al., 2019). The need for implementing evidence-based practices is apparent, and establishing proper frameworks for doing must be the highest priority (ECU Libraries, 2021). Medical professionals have to work within the healthcare delivery system to ensure the best possible arrangement of outcomes for their subjects (Teo et al., 2018). The cooperation of nurses and the use of current-day research are the most important steps to that goal.
Research has shown that there are a number of risk factors associated with a pressure injury. Age, mobility status, the severity of a patient’s condition, and their head’s elevation, among other things, can all be considered threats to their wellness. Medical professionals must develop more advanced ways of recognizing and noticing pressure injury, integrating newer approaches and monitoring tactics (Okonkwo et al., 2020). The use of various monitoring methods can be greatly beneficial to the process of preventing pressure trauma. The current body of literature regarding the subject is wide and should be implemented into active practice.
As many as 10 percent of the elderly patient demographic experience pressure-related injury, putting their health and recovery at risk (Ahn et al., 2016). The presence of pressure trauma can be greatly detrimental to other health-related processes, causing infection and damaging skin tissue. As a problem that affects some parts of the population, the elderly and people of color in particular, more acutely, medical professionals should find proper pathways to remedying it and promoting the wellbeing of their subjects. This process will be accomplished through better education and the utilization of evidence-based practices in the workplace. The addition of new and tested methods of pressure injury monitoring will further increase the effectiveness of nurses’ care.
Ahn, H., Cowan, L., Garvan, C., Lyon, D., & Stechmiller, J. (2016). Risk factors for pressure ulcers including suspected deep tissue injury in nursing home facility residents. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 29(4), 178–190. Web.
Alderden, J., Rondinelli, J., Pepper, G., Cummins, M., & Whitney, J. A. (2017). Risk factors for pressure injuries among critical care patients: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 71, 97–114. Web.
Barakat-Johnson, M., Lai, M., Wand, T., & White, K. (2019). A qualitative study of the thoughts and experiences of hospital nurses providing pressure injury prevention and management. Collegian, 26(1), 95–102. Web.
Cox, J., Roche, S., & Murphy, V. (2018). Pressure injury risk factors in critical care patients: A descriptive analysis. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 31(7), 328–334. Web.
Ebi, W. E., Hirko, G. F., & Mijena, D. A. (2019). Nurses’ knowledge to pressure ulcer prevention in public hospitals in Wollega: a cross-sectional study design. BMC Nursing. Web.
ECU Libraries. (2021). Evidence-Based Practice for Nursing: Evaluating the Evidence. Research Guides. Web.
Kayser, S., VanGilder, C., Ayello, E., & Lachenbruch, C. (2018). Prevalence and Analysis of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries: Results from the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey. Advances In Skin & Wound Care, 31(6), 276-285. Web.
Okonkwo, H., Bryant, R., Milne, J., Molyneaux, D., Sanders, J., Cunningham, G., Brangman, S., Eardley, W., Chan, G. K., Mayer, B., Waldo, M., & Ju, B. (2020). A blinded clinical study using a subepidermal moisture biocapacitance measurement device for early detection of pressure injuries. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 28(3), 364–374. Web.
Spruce, L. (2017). Back to Basics: Preventing Perioperative Pressure Injuries. AORN Journal, 105(1), 92-99. Web.
Teo, C. S., Claire, C. A., Lopez, V., & Shorey, S. (2018). Pressure injury prevention and management practices among nurses: A realist case study. International Wound Journal, 16(1), 153–163. Web.