Type-2 diabetes is a long-term chronic illness that results in high blood sugars in an individual’s bloodstream. This type of diabetes is a result of interrelated problems of the pancreas producing inadequate insulin and the body cells adapting by absorbing fewer sugars leading to blood sugar build-up. The condition was known as adult-onset diabetes but cases of type-2 diabetes have since been identified in children. Type-2 diabetes is prevalent in older adults, obese children and can be managed by adjusting dietary needs or losing weight. For chronic cases, insulin therapy is recommended.
An estimated 3 million Canadians, or 8.8% of the population have diagnosed diabetes and 6.1% of Canadian adults are at high risk of developing diabetes (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 2021). Among people living with diabetes, complications often arise leading to pre-mature death. Diabetes reduces an individual’s lifespan by at least 15 years with mortality rates among Canadians living with diabetes being twice as high as the mortality rate for people with no diabetes. The hospitalization rate is also more than 3 times higher than the average Canadian living without diabetes. Diabetes also leads to other secondary conditions such as stoke, heart attack, kidney failure, and non-traumatic led amputations.
Prevalence and incidence
Prevalence in epidemiology denotes the total number of patients diagnosed with a particular condition over a specific time while incidence denotes the rate or frequency with which patients are diagnosed with a particular condition in a given time. An estimated eleven million people in Canada have diabetes or are pre-diabetic according to figures from the national health authorities. The number of cases diagnosed per year increases by 10 percent each year with the highest increases being recorded in large cities. The highest diabetes rates in the cities are seen in low-income neighborhoods. The higher number of prediabetic cases each year is because at least 10 percent of pregnant women in Canada are diagnosed with prediabetes each year.
Control and eradication efforts
Type-2 diabetes is an incurable medical condition that affects people not just in Canada but all over the globe. After a positive type-2 diabetes diagnosis, medical practitioners focus on controlling the negative effects of the condition and managing any complications that a patient might have. Canada’s Diabetes eradication and control efforts have had mixed results. For starters, screening for diabetes and pre-diabetes has increased leading to better management of the condition. Additionally, the number of people with either type-1 or type-2 diabetes has increased as screening for the disease increases. While the Canadian government invests millions every year for diabetes research, this has not led to lower diabetes drugs prices. The number of years people living with diabetes survive has however increased due to better management of the disease. The government’s efforts to sensitize people about a healthy lifestyle have led to reduced cases of prediabetes and better managed type-2 diabetes especially among the young people with the condition.
Bilous, R., Donnelly, R., & Idris, I. (2021). Management of type 2 diabetes. In Handbook of diabetes (5th ed.) (pp. 90–99). Wiley & Sons.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (2021). Government of Canada announces new investment in diabetes research. Canada.ca.
Northwood, M., Markle-Reid, M., Sherifali, D., Fisher, K., & Ploeg, J. (2021). Cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence in older home-care clients with type 2 diabetes in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 45(1).