The study reviewed the literature on the impact of physical activity on psychological health during the COVID-19 around the world. This investigation comes when the world is battling this pandemic, with many states being locked down and people observing quarantine measures. The virus control procedures have left people inactive, and many have even stopped working. This analysis is vital in understanding how people’s physical activities have changed and how it has impacted their mental health.
Numerous assessments have been conducted to ascertain COVID-19’s impact. Lesser and Nienhuis (2020) evaluated how the epidemic’s measures changed physical activity behavior and wellbeing among Canadians. The results indicated significant variations in the dormant population’s health outcomes between those who were more active, the same or less active (Lesser and Nienhuis, 2020). However, it was not the same in the physically dynamic individuals. Inactive respondents who consumed extra hours on outdoor activities experienced reduced anxiety than their counterparts with a limited workouts period. Public health controls showed substantial differences in lively and dormant participants. The increased somatic exercise was linked to healthy outcomes in less active persons.
The latter findings among the Canadians support this study hypothesis. The results indicated that the COVID-19 virus came with many changes in peoples’ daily routes forcing individuals to improvise to remain active. The study’s primary outcome shows that physical activities promoted overall health while reduced exercise adversely impacted the physical and psychological fitness of the population. Zhang et al. (2020) assessed the harmful effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese university learners’ psychological status while understanding the underlying mechanisms and exploring practicable moderation approaches.
The researchers assessed the highest levels of the COVID-19 outburst in China. The scholars conducted a longitudinal survey among 66 university learners. It used an indiscriminative approach to evaluate the dose-response link between the COVID-19 mortality rate, physical fitness, and undesirable emotions. The examination revealed that the COVID-19 deaths directly negatively influenced overall sleep quality and reduced aggressiveness. Contrary to the outcome indicated that the COVID-19 mortality rates did not directly affect general undesirable moods and anxiety with insomnia as a moderator (Zhang et al. 2020). Furthermore, outdoor activities directly lessened harmful emotions, and the maximum alleviation impact happened when seven-day calisthenics was around 2500 METs.
The above-discussed examination is critical in this study because the virus began in China. Therefore, the mitigation measures and their influence on the Chinese are vital in directing other nations to action. The finding supports the study hypothesis because it indicates that physical activity is one of the ways majorly used in mitigating the pandemic’s overall adverse health effect. The outcome has shown that psychological health improved with workouts. However, unlike our current study which focuses on the general population, the China investigation only focused on students. Callow et al. (2020) investigated the connection between the extent and amount of bodily exercise executed by the elderly in North America, specifically the US, and Canada, and their depressive and anxious signs, whereas presently experiencing social distancing guidelines (SDG) for the COVID-19 disease.
The above investigation utilized a descriptive cross-sectional model and engaged a virtual questioning from April 9th to 30th last year. The examination used a sample of around one thousand and forty-six older people aged fifty years and above in North America. The respondents were requested to provide their characteristics, their present state of health, and the existing social distancing policy’s impact on their perception of emotional feelings.
Moreover, the subjects filled the Physical Activity Scale for the Aging to illustrate the quantity and the degree of outdoor fitness. The elderly also completed the Geriatric Depression Scale and Geriatric Anxiety Gauge to establish the degree of their depressive and nervousness indicators. The findings indicated that ninety-seven percent of respondents adhered to present COVID-19 protocols most of the time. The elderly who engaged in vigorous workouts experienced reduced depressive signs when years, gender, and level of education were controlled (Callow et al. 2020). However, the study did not find any connection between exercise and anxiety signs. On the intensity of bodily aerobics done (light, mild, and severe), the results showed that more excellent light and vigorous activity, but not mild, resulted in decreased depressive-like signs.
The above study has investigated the same topic as the current survey, though it is done in the United States. The investigation has gone a notch higher to evaluate the intensity and the quantity of physical exercise and its influence on specific issues: depression and anxiety. The study’s findings were contrary to other findings as reviewed earlier. Other above studies have found that exercise improved overall psychological wellbeing. However, the result of this study indicated that workouts only reduced depressive signs and not anxiety. The study supports the hypothesis of current that physical engagements impact emotional status in the Covid-19 crisis.
In Italy, a study examined the physical activity rate changes during personal quarantine and the effect of exercise on mental status. Maugeri et al. (2020) analyzed 2524 suitable respondents. The findings of the investigation showed that physical activity significantly decreased before and during the virus. Additionally, the scholars revealed a substantial positive correlation between physical activity and mental wellbeing (Maugeri et al. 2020). These findings are the founding basis for the current study because it provides evidence that during the pandemic in Italy people’s workout level has been affected.
A global survey examined the changes in step count before and after the declaration of COVID-19 as a health disaster. The evaluation utilized an Experimental/Nonexperimental approach to collect information. Data was collected from 455 404 distinctive users in 187 nations via Argus’s smartphone app (Azumio). The findings revealed an average reduction in steps after 30 days of 27.3%, which differed from one place to another. The lessened level of steps can be connected with reduced levels of physical activity and better adherence to social distancing practices, the latter of which is necessary to stop the spread of the pandemic (Tison et al. 2020). This study is crucial for it shows the actual situation of things across the globe, which is a good foundation for this study.
Summary of the Literature Review
The literature review has indicated that various researchers have done studies on the issues surrounding Covid-19 management strategies. The five articles discussed above all agreed that bodily workouts reduced psychological problems. However, the researcher differed in various details; Lesser and Nienhuis (2020) in Canada discussed how inactivity and activeness influenced mental health. The study results revealed that increased outdoor activities reduced anxiety levels. Zhang et al. (2020) in China among college students showed that physical activity directly lessened harmful emotions, and the maximum alleviation impact happened when seven-day calisthenics was around 2500 METs. The last article by Callow et al. (2020) in northern America illustrated that exercise reduced depression among the elderly but did not affect anxiety among the same population. All the articles, though, differ in the manner of approach, people, and location of the investigations. They all support the research hypothesis that physical activities impact emotional stability during the COVID-19 disease.
Callow, D. D., Arnold-Nedimala, N. A., Jordan, L. S., Pena, G. S., Won, J., Woodard, J. L., & Smith, J. C. (2020). The mental health benefits of physical activity in older adults survive the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(10), 1046-1057.
Maugeri, G., Castrogiovanni, P., Battaglia, G., Pippi, R., D’Agata, V., Palma, A., & Musumeci, G. (2020). The impact of physical activity on psychological health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon, 6(6), e04315. Web.
Lesser, I. A., & Nienhuis, C. P. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on physical activity behavior and wellbeing of Canadians. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 3899.
Tison, G. H., Avram, R., Kuhar, P., Abreau, S., Marcus, G. M., Pletcher, M. J., &Olgin, J. E. (2020). Worldwide Effect of COVID-19 on physical activity: A Descriptive study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173(9), 767-770. Web.
Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Ma, X., & Di, Q. (2020). Mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemics and the mitigation effects of exercise: A longitudinal study of college students in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3722.