Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation
When an accumulation of fat, such as cholesterol (LDL), builds up inside the arterial wall, it is known as atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerosis can be exacerbated by factors such as smoking and high blood pressure. The endothelium layer is damaged when plaque builds up in the lining of the arterial wall. When this happens, plaque begins to build up along the blood vessel’s lining, narrowing the blood vessel’s diameter. As a result, blood flow is limited.
The parasympathetic nervous system is in charge of generating artery vasodilation. As a result, your blood pressure will be reduced. The sympathetic nervous system boosts cardiac output by raising heart rate. Blood volume and fluid balance are controlled by the RAA system. Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction, which raises blood pressure.
A plaque rupture can result in a total blockage of the heart’s arteries, depriving the heart muscle of blood and oxygen, resulting in ischemic death of myocardial tissue and infarction. Because the heart tissue’s metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic after a myocardial infarction, it produces insufficient energy. Within 60 seconds of the start, contractile function begins to deteriorate. Within minutes, the cell structure has changed.
The objective of the heart in compensating for heart failure is to keep cardiac output constant. Because all of Mr. Kyle’s energy was being channeled to compensate for his heart failure, the chest issue typically corrected itself when he stopped whatever he was doing. Without relying on external regulation, the Frank-Starling system permits the cardiac output to be synced with the venous return, arterial blood supply, and humoral length.
Rupture of a Plaque in the Left Coronary Artery
Stable plaques form when fatty deposits thicken and stiffen the walls of the coronary arteries, but unstable plaques can rupture and lift off the arterial wall, resulting in an acute event such as a heart attack.
The contents of a ruptured plaque create a thrombus in the vessel lumen.
The clot may potentially break loose and move through the bloodstream (embolus), triggering a MI when it lodges in the heart’s coronary arteries.
Because hypertension has no symptoms, people are often unaware of their blood pressure unless it is measured. High blood pressure that isn’t managed can lead to heart attacks, strokes, and heart failure.
On the basis of a persistently high resting blood pressure. Diagnosis method is resting blood pressure.
Headaches, shortness of breath, and nosebleeds are common signs and symptoms of high blood pressure, but they aren’t specific and typically don’t appear until the condition has progressed to a severe or life-threatening level.
Antihypertensives and diuretics are two types of blood pressure medications that can help keep blood pressure at a healthy level.
Nonpharmacological treatments can assist patients lower their daily antihypertensive drug doses and postpone the onset of hypertension. They involve changes to one’s lifestyle, such as dietary changes and exercise.
Tightness across his chest. Pain in the chest. Sweating. Shortness of breath
The first test to identify a heart attack is an electrocardiogram (ECG), which captures electrical impulses as they pass through your heart. Electrodes (sticky patches) are connected to your chest and arms. Signals are captured in the form of waves that may be seen on a monitor or printed on paper. The ECG may reveal that a heart attack has happened or is occurring because damaged cardiac muscle does not transmit electrical impulses normally. Troponin I is a heart muscle-specific protein.
Medication, cardiac rehabilitation, surgery, and other procedures are some of the treatments for MI. Patients must cooperate fully with pharmacological therapies, and a thorough explanation of the rationale for taking medicines, including restrictions, adverse effects, and potential advantages, is critical (Fine & Lee, 2000). Non-pharmacological pain therapy refers to pain-relieving therapies that do not entail the use of drugs. Non-pharmacological treatments are intended to alleviate fear, discomfort, and anxiety, as well as pain and provide patients a sense of control (Schwartz, 2011).
Heart Failure – Type and how it Develops
Heart failure on the left side. The heart’s left ventricle isn’t pumping enough blood around the body anymore. Blood builds up in the pulmonary veins as a result. Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, vomiting, and coughing are common symptoms, especially during physical activity.
Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart is weak and unable to efficiently pump blood. The left side of the heart is weakened in left-sided heart failure, which results in the heart’s capacity to pump blood into the body being decreased. The right side of the heart is weakened in right-sided heart failure, which causes fluid to accumulate in the veins, producing edema in the legs, ankles, and liver. Shortness of breath when exerting oneself is one of the indications and symptoms of heart failure. The heart muscle may be injured and weakened, and the ventricles may expand to the point that the heart is unable to properly pump blood throughout the body.
Heart Failure – Compensation and Treatment
Electrophysiologic intervention, revascularization procedures, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are all invasive treatments for heart failure. He may require implanted devices such as a pacemaker or a cardioverter-defibrillator to help regulate irregular heart rhythms such as arrhythmia since he has left-sided heart failure. Dietary salt and fluid restriction, as well as proper physical exercise and attention to weight gain, are non-pharmacologic treatments. Coronary artery bypass surgery and valve surgery are two surgical therapies for heart failure.
Fine, M. J., & Lee, S. W. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of diversity in parent education: The changing faces of parenting and parent education. Elsevier. Web.
Schwartz, P. J. (2011). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of the congenital long QT syndrome: the rationale. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 131(1), 171-177. Web.