Research Problem and Purpose
The purpose of the article is clearly defined by the authors, while the problem arises from the introduction and research results. Hall et al. (2018) aim to investigate the complexity of the childbirth process in the context of where it occurs and the factors influencing women’s well-being. Simultaneously, the problem is that women experience painful physical processes and overwhelming emotions during childbirth. If this experience was negative, it increases the chances of postnatal depression, adverse health outcomes, and fear of childbirth, affecting subsequent desire to have children (Hall et al., 2018).
Hypotheses and Research Questions/Statements
Since the authors used qualitative research, they did not formulate precise hypotheses or research questions. However, the results and methodology demonstrate the authors’ hypotheses, such as the idea that childbirth is a process of keeping it together and falling apart (Hall et al., 2018). Other assumptions are that factors such as confidence, connection, comfort, and agency contribute to positive or negative birthing experiences.
Literature Review/ Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
The literature review is presented in the article as part of the introduction and discussion but is not a separate subsection. However, the authors have summarized and synthesized the research and findings of various scientists to substantiate the research problem and discuss the results. All sources are relevant to the topic of the article. In addition, although the authors did not define a framework for the entire study, they noted the use of Bandura’s self-efficacy concept as a theoretical framework for examining confidence (Hall et al., 2018). Hence, the review demonstrates that the article is based on evidence and scientific theories.
The study participants were women who had an uncomplicated vaginal birth at term and gave birth to a healthy infant. In total, eight women of different ages, ethnicity, and education were interviewed, which is a small to determine general trends (Hall et al., 2018). Women were recruited from pregnancy education groups and were interviewed at home or private offices. Criteria, setting, and sampling was adequate as the authors excluded additional factors, such as complications during childbirth for a woman or infant, that might influence the attitude but retained the diversity of the experience.
Protection of Human Research Participants
Participants gave informed consent and were interviewed confidentially.
The authors used a qualitative research design by conducting an in-depth interview with open-ended questions.
Instruments and Strategies for Measurement/ Data Collection
The main instrument of the study was interviews conducted twice. Information regarding reliability and variability was not provided.
The authors used two approaches to analyze the data. First, Hall et al. (2018) used the process of analyzing and highlighting the main themes described by van Manen and compared the participants’ experiences. Second, before starting to explore the interviews, researchers formulated key assumptions through literature study and discussion (Hall et al., 2018). This approach made it possible to highlight the main findings and explain the research results consistently and comprehensively. As a result, Hall et al. (2018) found that confidence assists women with finding emotional resources during labor and that comfort and connection help manage or change the meaning of pain, promoting relaxation. However, lack of agency contributes to negative labor experience.
The study’s main limitation is the insufficiently large sample, which did not include women of different social status, races, and desire to use medication (Hall et al., 2018). The authors propose to address these shortcomings in future studies but do not suggest specific steps. However, the researchers insist on looking at the factors they identified and improving the agency of women during childbirth.
Research Utilization in Your Practice
The authors’ findings are essential for improving the quality of care for women during childbirth and their health outcomes. However, the data must be validated at a larger scale that will cover women with different demographic characteristics. Nevertheless, these findings can be used by health care professionals to provide an adequate level of support and agency, initiate improvement of hospital facilities, and advise women’s partners or relatives to be present during labor. As a result, this approach can take care of women during childbirth to a whole new level.
Hall, P. J., Foster, J. W., Yount, K. M., & Jennings, B. M. (2018). Keeping it together and falling apart: Women’s dynamic experience of birth. Midwifery, 58, 130-136. Web.