Researchers and medical scientists continue to grapple with cases of disease outbreaks long after innovations and inventions took place. The endless struggle to reduce or control mortality rates leads to continuous research that aims at inventing new ways and measures of saving human lives (Roche 2010). Despite these efforts, people continue to die and records show an increase in mortality rate as compared to the expectations of modern health care facilities and training. This discussion outlines various issues that affect mortality rates and lead to disparities in studies conducted in various regions.
Before discussing the factors influencing variations in mortality rates, we have to understand the differences between disease incidence and prevalence. Incidence refers to the occurrence of an event. Therefore, disease incidence refers to situations where people fall ill and die as a result of sickness. On the other hand, disease prevalence refers to the possibility of a person or population being ill (Chase 2011). This means that, in places where disease prevalence is high, there are more incidences of infections compared to areas that have low prevalence rates.
Consequently, areas prevalent to diseases have higher mortality rates compared to low-risk areas. Poverty is a driving force that contributes to poor hygienic standards, malnutrition, and lack of access to quality health care services. People living in poverty-stricken areas have a high risk of becoming sick since their environment offers chances for diseases to spread extremely fast. Disease-causing vectors thrive well in unhygienic conditions.
Modern lifestyles also contribute some percentage of mortality rates. People living in developed countries die as a result of lifestyle-related diseases and complications like diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. Cases of drug abuse and addiction in developed countries supersede those in developing countries. The absence of quality healthcare services and the presence of road accidents and incurable diseases determine mortality rates in all regions (Dublin 2009). Despite the widespread use of modern state-of-the-art technology in the United States of America, there is an extremely high mortality rate compared to that in Haiti.
This case study has more than the surface meaning in terms of discussing mortality rates in various countries concerned. Most people living in Haiti face domestic challenges like lack of proper food, quality medical facilities, poor sanitation, and limited shelters (Kirn 2005). This motivates them to maintain sanitized environment and seek medical care as soon as possible. On the other hand, most Americans assume they are in hygienic settings where diseases are a thing of the past.
Secondly, while most people in Haiti die of preventable diseases their counterparts in the United States die of lifestyle complications. Crime, road accidents, and drug abuse are increasing at a fast rate, in America, unlike in other countries (Kirn 2005). In addition, most people in the United States die due to stress-related diseases as a result of the challenges associated with urbanization. The prevalence of deaths in the United States cannot be easily determined as compared to that in Haiti. However, Haiti requires a lot of funds in order to curb its mortality rate while the United States requires a change in lifestyles, nutrition, and reduction of urban-related stress and depressions.
There are higher chances that Haiti can easily lower its mortality rate as compared to its counterpart. Limited finance to cater to the basic needs of the population is the leading cause of death in Haiti. On the contrary, most Americans die as a result of complicated lifestyle diseases.
Chase, J. (2011). Mortality Rate. Charleston: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Dublin, L. (2009). Factors in American Mortality: A Study of Death Rates in the Race Stocks of New York State, 1910. Michigan: University of Michigan Library.
Kirn, T. (2005). Maternal Mortality Rate Grossly Underestimated: Family Practice News. New York: International Medical News Group.
Roche, J. (2010). An Investigation into the Mortality Rates of the City of New York. Baltimore: Nabu Press.