Biomedical engineering has led to the emergence of new medical devices and new treatment procedures. Hemorrhage has become an emergency especially with increasing violent acts such as terrorism, assault, and war thus prompting the need to seek faster and easier procedures to deal with this situation (Garcia 42). The Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation Cuff (herein referred to as DBAC Cuff) is one of the many successes that have been achieved through the application of this biomedical knowledge. The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff is a light ultrasound device designed to stop punctured blood vessels in limbs from bleeding. The device uses Doppler Effect to detect bleeding vessels and trigger rapid coagulation by focusing on high-intensity ultrasound.
This paper seeks to explore the deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff and its structural design features and properties that enable the device to function effectively. More emphasis will be placed on the technical operation of the device rather than its clinical importance. The mechanical and electrical properties of the device will be discussed to show the efficiency of the device.
The Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation Cuff Functioning
The device has a unique ability that allows for selective treatment of wounds located deep within the body mass without harming body tissues located between the treatment site and the body surface (Osborn 43). The device is specialized to detect and treat lesions from injuries giving it the ability to focus high-intensity ultrasound on the injured region without interfering with normal tissues lying above the affected region during the therapy sessions.
The device is also modified to ensure that the high-intensity ultrasound signals do not affect the imaging receiver which may interfere with the lesion image captured through the ultrasound (Ding 36). This gives the device the ability to correctly identify the injured areas. The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff can interleave the high-intensity ultrasound signals transmitted to the imager thus preventing the overlapping of ultrasound images ensuring sharp focus on the punctured vessels.
The device also allows the physician to accurately assess and treat patients undergoing uncontrolled hemorrhage. The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff ensures safe interaction with the patient (Carbone & Ceccarelli 350). The device is also stable and its functionality is not disrupted by any external disturbances. It provides a workspace large enough for the user to properly see and reach all areas of the patient’s body with ease. This increases the accuracy of the device in the detection and treatment of lesions.
It is also portable and can be easily carried from one place to another. The device is also waterproof, a feature that protects the transducer’s electrical parts from damage. Features such as balance and joint-limit avoidance are also catered for in the device (Harnett 542). This ensures that the device has minimum faults and that the examination conducted on the patient is free from errors. This in turn leads to accurate detection and treatment of lesions.
The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff also can treat cancer in soft tissues (Lou 1026). The device can also be used to augment the patient’s immune system. The device uses thermal energy to denature proteins as well as coagulate cells thus destroying cancer cells embedded deep in the human body. It also has the capability of focusing this heat on a particular spot. It can reach a penetration depth of fifteen centimeters. This property allows the device to treat injuries that have extended deep into the body mass.
The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff also can deliver treatment with little or no biological harm to the surrounding tissues. The thermal energy released by the device activates the platelets in the affected region thus causing blood coagulation (Roy et al. 987). This process causes the hardening of the wound within ten seconds of exposure to the ultrasound waves halting further bleeding. The device can also destroy small blood vessels that supply blood to tumors and cancers.
Technical Design of the Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation Cuff
For the deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff to function efficiently, a couple of mechanical and electrical features are applied. The device’s unique ability to selectively treat a punctured vessel without affecting the region just above it can be attributed to the use of magnetic imaging and ultrasound (Osborn 43). Images are used to display ultrasound images in real-time. These imagers detect areas that are bleeding. A bright spot caused by bubbles in the ultrasound image signifies the location of the lesion. This enables the device to focus on the punctured vessel without harming normal tissues.
Interleaving the high-intensity ultrasound between the imaging cycles helps to prevent the saturation of the imaging receiver with ultrasound signals. The transducer is manipulated so as not to transmit concurrent images. This eliminates interference since ultrasound images can be viewed without them overlapping each other. Electrical signals are assessed and tuned appropriately to allow for concurrent gating (Roy et al. 988). Signals are routed to the conditioning circuit through a switch. This technique allows for sharp focusing and detection of bleeding sites. Upon proper focusing, the device can then administer therapy only to the affected area leaving the regions around it intact.
The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff is designed in such a way that it can be mounted with ease on the operating table. This gives the device the ability to extend the user’s workspace which ensures that the technician can easily access and treat the injured person (Ding 36). The device takes a robotic shape allowing for a thorough examination of the patient. It is also generally light which makes it portable and easy to move around. It is also safe to use around humans.
The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff also takes a skeletal shape with revolute joints. This feature is important in that it allows for a range of motions at each joint hence the device can be set to suit the user. The ability to adjust the position of these joints also ensures a thorough inspection of the patient and also distributes the weight of the device evenly (Carbone & Ceccarelli 350). The device can also be decoupled making it easier to disassemble for easier storage and transportation.
The imaging probe of the device is mounted on a linear plane to allow for proper alignment of the imaging plane. This arrangement makes the treatment of the punctured vessels easier (Lou 1026). The device is also mounted on a resin-tight fitting shell that makes it waterproof thus ensuring that the electrical components of the ultrasound device are protected from environmental conditions such as humidity that may affect their functioning.
The deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff can convert mechanical energy to thermal energy. Ultrasound waves generated by the transducer are focused on a small region (Roy et al. 989). This absorbed energy is then converted to heat that is localized on a specific area in the body. The heating effect denatures the body proteins and coagulates cells in the region thus killing cancer cells. This effect can also stop bleeding in internal vessels through the formation of a thermal lesion. Ultrasound wave intensity outside the focal region is lower thus the heat generated is not sufficient enough to destroy cells located in those regions.
The heating effect of the deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff allows for its efficient functioning. Heating the surface of a punctured vessel leads to the formation of bubbles. The bubbles help in heat deposition thus speeding up the healing process. The thermal effect also causes rupturing of platelets, a condition that leads to blood coagulation (Osborn 44). The wounded region thus hardens and seals stopping the bleeding.
Biomedical engineering has in the recent past proven to be a promising sector in the medical field. One of the major achievements of biomedical engineers is the invention of the deep bleeder acoustic coagulation cuff. The device has gained popularity and is being improved to tackle emergencies efficiently. This device is mostly used on the battlefields by the military. Fatal injuries inflicted on the soldiers can be treated to stop bleeding before the evacuation of the injured persons. Care should however be taken while using the device. The ultrasound waves should only be focused on the target sites to avoid harming surrounding tissues.
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