It is important to study the topic of sociology because unlike some other sciences, it operates with clear concepts that are constantly used in everyday life. At the very beginning of the subject formation, thoughts and ideas arose that describe the subject of science exclusively at the level of everyday knowledge. Some assumptions may turn out to be completely wrong, while others will lay the foundation for further development. In the future, this lays the foundations of science, and the beginnings of new directions in the development of human thought, which is the focus of the essay. Emile Durkheim is expected to be one of the well-known and successful developers and founders of sociology with the outstanding work Rules of Sociological Method as one example. The argument will be developed through the use of secondary research and a literature review.
Each person has an understanding of the surrounding reality and the society in which he exists, which includes ideas about personality, freedom, equality, and justice concerning other people, family, organization of activities, and other attributes of life. Sociology is defined by Durkheim as the study of facts in terms of society and their explanations. The elements of this social reality, according to Durkheim, are social facts, the totality of which makes up society, and these facts are the subject of sociology (Marcucci, 2017). When projecting his statements into real life, they are reasonable and applicable.
Sociology by Emile Durkheim
As a positivist, Durkheim paid much attention to the consideration and application of specific methods of scientific research. However, they did not appear to him as an end in itself, the main aspect was that with their help, it was possible to implement a sociological approach or a sociological method of studying social facts (Talebzadeh, Mehrnia, and Mosavi, 2020). For this, the French scientists formulated special rules of the sociological method. In his work, numerous rules and their classification is given. The sociologist identifies five groups of rules related to the observation of social facts, distinguishing between normal and pathological, construction of social types, explanation of the social facts, and concerning evidence (Talebzadeh, Mehrnia, and Mosavi, 2020). Among these many rules, there are several basic ones.
Basic Rules of Sociology
The first rule presented by Durkheim demonstrates that social facts should be considered with the recognition of their existence and independence. Therefore, an objective approach to social reality should be ensured. According to the second rule, the sociologist should study not separate or disparate social facts, but their entire classes. The beginning of the research lies in the description and ordering of social facts. The main goal is to establish deeper causal connections and laws between them, which is the essence of the third basic rule. Finally, the fourth basic rule of the sociological method is that sociology, describing and explaining social facts, strives for comparative and contrastive analysis (Marcucci, 2017). Therefore, Emile Durkheim laid the theoretical foundation for further research.
Relevance to the Modern Days
Durkheim had a broad interpretation of socialism. He believed that to understand socialism, one must study all its types and varieties. Speaking in general about the importance of the sociological creativity of the French scientist, it should be noted that he left behind a coherent and harmonious sociological system, which has not lost its relevance today. Additionally, the success of Durkheim’s work is represented by the presence of the followers who have continued to develop his thoughts over the years. Followers in their works used his developments as a base while continuing to explore and deduce new facets of sociology (D’Orsi and Dei, 2018). The popularity and widespread of Emile Durkheim’s thoughts as well as the presence of followers till the 21st century demonstrates that he brought a significant impact to the development of science with his Rules for a Sociological Method and other works.
In sociology, two of its components can be distinguished: theoretical and applied. The task of theoretical sociology is to obtain new knowledge about society and deepen the theoretical understanding of the processes taking place in it. Living in the time of another famous scientist Karl Marx, Durkheim also brought a significant impact on the development of sociology. Both scientists became the founders of many theories and directions. Durkheim’s success as a scientist is undeniable, as he contributed his thoughts and ideas to the informative stream of sociology.
In conclusion, the consideration of his sociological method of Durkheim has proved that it can be said that his basic rules and postulates of research have retained their significance to the present day. He lived during the time of other famous scientists who developed fundamental research and theories. At the same time brought his great contribution to the development of sociology. He had and still has followers who continue to develop the base that he formed in his work. Therefore, Emile Durkheim has achieved success with his Rules for a Sociological Method.
D’Orsi, L. and Dei, F. (2018) ‘What is a rite? Emile Durkheim, a hundred years later’, Open Information Science, 2(1), pp. 115-126.
Marcucci, N. (2017) ‘Between facts and wills: Tonnies, Durkheim, and the sociological critique of modern obligation’, Journal of Classical Sociology, 17(4), pp. 276-292.
Talebzadeh, S. H., Mehrnia, H., and Mosavi Asl, S. S. (2020) ‘The organic approach within German idealism as a condition of positivist social science in Durkheim’s thought’, Sociological Review, 26(2), pp. 241-272.