Sickle cell disease is an illness that does not make red blood cells as they ought to be. It looks like around record for red blood cells. However, they resemble sickles or crescent moon rather than sickle cell disease. These sickle-shaped cells obstruct blood vessels. This disfigurement prevents blood from moving correctly, leading to discomfort and damage to body organs. However, patient-and-caregivers-based treatment options uphold the connectivism model to ensure that the society members lead quality lifestyles free from the deadly disease associated with multiple deaths and reduced productivity levels. Additionally, a comprehensive communication development plan will determine the success of the key health players.
Introduction and Purpose
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a child-born blood disorder with a parent’s genes passed on. Children with SCD produce an abnormal hemoglobin type: red blood cells contain the protein that transports oxygen to all parts of the body. Interestingly, the history of sickle cell disease in the family increases the risk of getting the disease. SCD is a group of red blood cell diseases that are inherited. Red cells are round and are transported to all body parts via small vessels of blood. In a person with SCD, the red cells become harder and sticky and appear as a “sickle” farming tool (Aschmann et al., 2020). The C-shaped cells die prematurely, causing red blood cells to be constantly limited. They also become stuck and block blood flow even before they travel via tiny blood vessels. This effect may cause discomfort and other severe problems such as infection, acute stroke, and chest syndrome.
However, caregiver- and patient-centered educational programs are crucial to safeguarding the susceptible children from the adversities associated with the health condition. Health professionals acknowledge that all stakeholders have distinct roles in reducing the vulnerability of children to deadly diseases. Therefore, the stakeholder-centric design combines human-centered design with system-based thought to identify and design people which is the most significant leverage points with the highest impact on your product’s ecosystem. It is the practice of identifying each stakeholder’s needs and interests in the ecosystem, lifespan, and development of their product or services (Aschmann et al., 2020). This approach requires not just the individual actors but also the interaction and influence of the actors.
Background and Significance
Clinical manifestations of SCD usually begin around the age of five months. Its symptoms and complications vary from mild to severe for each person. Because babies, or fetal hemoglobin, do not exhibit symptoms at birth, they protect blood cells from waste. The infant or fetal hemoglobin replaces sickle hemoglobin when it is about four to five months, and the cells start to sickle (Asnani et al., 2016). SCD is a disease that, over time, worsens but treatments are available to prevent difficulties and lengthen people’s lives.
While the use of medicinal resources is high, the total price of treating clients with the disease, including treatment not connected with SCD, is not known. The patient-month average price is $1.389 (Asnani et al., 2016). Generally, 51.8 percent of attention was directly linked to SCD, with hospital admissions accounting for a sizable proportion (80. 5%) (Aschmann et al., 2020). Notably, the costs associated with non-SCD were significantly higher than for the general population of the United States. These results suggest that care costs of $460.151 per person with SCD will be reduced (3% discount rate) (Asnani et al., 2016). The substantial economic hardship of the disease can be reduced by actions intended to prevent SCD difficulties and prevent hospitalization.
In general, the mortality rates of SCD in infants, children, and adolescents are high. According to Asnani et al. (2016), the death rates are high in all cases; the overall death rates for children under the age of 20 reported by CSSCD were 2.6% in patients with all sorts of CSD. Additionally, there was 3.3% for individuals with SCA some 30 years ago (Asnani et al., 2016). In contrast to the USA, the death rate remains high, particularly in Africa and underdeveloped nations.
Other than the effective management of sickle cell, project stakeholder participation means a mutual understanding of and participation in the project decision-making process. Stakeholder involvement tends to lead to empowerment and joint project ownership. The project should begin with a discussion process that leads to agreements and ends with collective decisions to increase participation. Taking into account the strength of the evidence on treatment effects, patient-centered treatment modifies decision-making to the preferences and characteristics of an individual (Aschmann et al., 2020). For instance, it is contingent on the person’s cardiovascular threat, risk dynamics, and inclinations whether statins offer a tangible gain or harm to an individual. Similarly, victims and caregivers should be committed to ensuring that all patient-centered recommendations are considered and balanced adequately for communities or specific subgroups.
“Interventions for patients and caregivers to improve knowledge of sickle cell disease and recognition of its related complications” and “Informing patient-centered care through stakeholder engagement and highly stratified quantitative benefit–harm assessments” are the two articles selected for the assignment. For the first article, Asnani et al. (2016) emphasize that this review highlights the significant beneficial effects on patient knowledge on sickle cell trait and depressive symptoms of education interventions. Impact on the ability of patients was preserved longer than that for care providers. There was an important but minor impact on knowledge, and it is uncertain whether anything provides any clinical benefits. Trials at powered as well as participation rates may be significant factors restricting these effects. Secondary outcome evaluations were not statistically meaningful because the number of studies, patients, and caregivers were not sufficiently high. Tests showed moderate heterogeneity that could influence the results. Further controlled trials, with a rigorous focus on improving recruitment, retention, and declining partiality, are necessary to enhance results. Multiple sites should use predefined protocols employing similar measurements.
Other than the entrusted research assistants conducting a comprehensive analysis of the existing research documents, the formatting of the contents makes it easier for the audiences to comprehend all the information therein. The inclusion criteria used to select the participants for the study helped understand the significance of patient-based treatment options and guarantee the generalization of the study outcome. Additionally, the study entailed several trials to give reliable results about the benefit of the educational programs upheld by all the stakeholders. Finally, in addition to listing the various literature reviewed during the study, Asnani et al. (2016) provided a summarized conclusion for the target audience to understand the complex topic explained. Thus, the information included in this comprehensive and educative piece is applicable for the successful completion of this study and provides background information for future researchers to base their prospective studies on.
Unfortunately, although the study outcomes and the information comprised on the document can be generalized to help enlighten the health stakeholders about the complex sickle cell diseases, specific loopholes in the research strategies question their validity and reliability. For instance, the decision to emphasize participants aged from five and above is unsatisfactory. The emphasis on participants with any form of SCD, such as sickle cell anemia, meant that the researchers disregarded the critical roles of the other members of society. Thus, it is evident that the study displayed selection bias. Moreover, the research exhibited both the detection, reporting, attrition, and performance biases questioning its applicability in understanding the elements of sickle cell condition.
The second article can enlighten the key players about the various aspects of the deadly sickle cell diseases. Specifically, Aschmann et al. (2020) indicate that the social approaches to involving sick people and their families at all stages is of stratified measurable advantage. Impairment evaluations were practicable and demonstrated in what way the benefits harm equilibrium and is sensitive to the sick features and separable preferences. Therefore, this thoughtfulness can be suggested to the creators when tailoring endorsements for particular patient sub-groups or overtly abandoning policymaking to hospitals and their suppliers. Although the article does not focus on the sickle cell condition amongst the children, the information included herein can be applied in understanding the benefits of patient-centered treatment options in safeguarding the youngsters from deadly diseases.
The objective of this project was to design algorithms for informing patient care. The scheme had various fortes, including involvement of stakeholders all through the procedure and numerous chances for contribution from outside guides. Additionally, despite differences in evidence, we have consistently developed methods across the two clinical questions. In particular, there were considerable differences in the amount of evidence available and between the studies. Thus, in other situations, it is probably helpful to use our systems and comprehensive methods.
Unfortunately, the study was subject to limitations that undermine the generalization of the outcomes. For instance, Aschmann et al. (2020) argues that both the external and internal developers of guidelines pointed out that there are generally limited resources. Data was highly valued and resource-intensive because the choices available for many issues were limited to obtaining data on patients and caregivers. Thus, other than the information included herein can act as baseline data for further research studies, addressing the identified weaknesses will guarantee reliable and valid findings.
Although the two articles are independent and with different research questions, the information included in both pieces is critical for guaranteeing the likelihood of the essential health players taking advantage of the patient-and-caregiver-based health initiatives. The programs will help reduce cases of SCD or another disease. Moreover, both the pieces have limitations and hence the need for researchers to consider conducting further studies to ensure that the future of the society is sustainable. Additionally, the lists of the various sources used for the tasks are confirmation that the entrusted researchers’ arguments are evidence-based.
Evidence-Based Health Communication Development Plan
The Guiding Theory
Connectivism is an example of a model that can help in the establishment of a health promotional project. The connectivism refers to a comparatively recent notion of learning, advanced and grounded on the notion of individuals handling information through networks. With technology and the digital age, this theory has evolved to accommodate progress in these fields. This new model predicts that people do not stop erudition after formal schooling and endure to acquire information in other ways, like employment expertise, schmoozing, and accessibility using new technology tools. All stakeholders need to collaborate to realize their aims (Duke et al., 2013). The key parties recommend alternative treatment options for the patients before considering the possibilities that would curb the negative consequences of the deadly SCD or other secondary diseases associated with the issue.
Society is complex, socially, globally connected, and influenced by expanding technological advances. It is the instrumentation of problematic misconceptions associated with specific information sets; a variety of views are the basis of knowledge. It is a collaborative effort of existing ideas from present realities. The core competency is to see links between sources of information and maintain this connection to facilitate continuous learning (Duke et al., 2013). Decisions are backed by rapidly changing basic principles, given that new data is quickly incorporated into a new rational environment.
Framework for Developing Health Communication
Linking Goals and Objectives
With the first step entailing the linking of the goals, ascertaining the reason for the health communication will help the key players understand the complex elements of SCD.
Attitude, Belief, and Knowledge
Communicating the patient-based therapy to all key players will enlighten them about the proposed project and implement it to oversee the health issue. Specifically, this phase will change the perception of the society members about the initiatives.
Establishing a reliable communication system will make it easier for the key players to interact and share their challenges and accomplishments while engaging in their distinct duties. To choose suitable health approaches, knowledge of the target audience’s information and market trends is needed.
Planning and Development
Communication planning for health is a process that is iterative, particularly in steps 4 through 6 of the CDC. While the actions in this prototype are shown in a row, some steps are taken in one or more steps. Besides setting aside enough financial resources to facilitate the health project, it would be wise to involve all the key players.
The guidelines discussed aim to provide the best scientific advice to help people with SCD receive proper care. The target audience is primary providers and other healthcare professionals, nurses, and personnel who provide SCD people with urgent situations or continuity care. However, the entrusted health stakeholders need to have a comprehensive understanding of the proposed program to ensure that they execute their roles towards ensuring that they realize their mutual goals.
Aschmann, H. E., Boyd, C. M., Robbins, C. W., Chan, W. V., Mularski, R. A., Bennett, W. L., Sheehan, O.C., Wilson, R. F., Bayliss, E. A., Leff, B., Armacost, K., Glover, C., Maslow, K., Mintz, S., & Puhan, M. A. (2020). Informing patient-centered care through stakeholder engagement and highly stratified quantitative benefit–harm assessments. Value in Health, 23(5), 616-624. Web.
Asnani, M. R., Quimby, K. R., Bennett, N. R., & Francis, D. K. (2016). Interventions for patients and caregivers to improve knowledge of sickle cell disease and recognition of its related complications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10). Web.
Duke, B., Harper, G., & Johnston, M. (2013). Connectivism as a digital age learning theory. The International HETL Review, 2013(Special Issue), 4-13. Web.