Health outcomes and patient satisfaction can determine the quality of care in a hospital. Nurses play an essential role in supporting clients and reaching specific health goals. Since nursing is a practical profession, it requires applying evidence-based methods and scientific theories (Jacob, 2018). Nursing theory can be defined as “a set of concepts definitions, and models…derived from logical thinking and inductive reasoning” (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018, p. 141). The goals of these theories were to explore and explain the daily experiences of nurses in healthcare facilities (Jacob, 2018).
Furthermore, introducing nursing theories could reduce healthcare costs, refine nurse-patient communication, and improve health outcomes (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018). Historically, the first nursing theorist is Florence Nightingale, who developed an environmental adaptation theory that was a list of postulates about behavior and lifestyle to achieve better health for patients and nurses (Jacob, 2018). Later, other theories were formulated by Peplau, Orlando, Henderson, Rogers, King, Watson, and Newman (Jacob, 2018). Implementing evidence-based practice and achieving the hospital administrators’ goal to become the healthcare center of choice will require applying King’s goal attainment theory.
One of the objectives of the hospital’s owners is to attain superior clinical outcomes, which can be achieved through the patient-centered approach. The nursing theorist who explored unitary human beings’ concept to find better health solutions was Martha Rogers (Bultemeier, 2017). She promoted the idea of dynamic interaction between an individual’s well-being and environment (Bultemeier, 2017).
Specifically, Rogers claimed that superior potential could be accomplished by strengthening the unity between a person and the surroundings (Bultemeier, 2017). Moreover, health and disease can be viewed as manifestations of patterns such as nutrition, physical activity, habits, safety, and circadian rhythms. Therefore, nurses should strive to reach a consensus with patients about these patterns to prevent illnesses caused by disorganized lifestyles.
Similarly, Imogene King’s goal attainment theory claim that “making a mutual and therapeutic relationship between nurses and their clients” is crucial to get exceptional clinical results (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018, p. 141). Furthermore, King’s theory states that human health is an open system that depends on one’s needs and motivations (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018). Rogers’ and King’s theories promote the importance of nurse-patient communication to achieve outstanding health results.
The second goal of the hospital is to become the healthcare organization of choice through evidence-based practice. Indeed, Rogers believed that since nursing is primarily learned by hands-on experience, it should be based on scientific information “that develops from research and analysis” (Bultemeier, 2017, p. 245). Analogously, King’s theory suggests that nurses should use their experience and knowledge to establish relationships with patients and explain therapeutic goals (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018). However, the science of unitary human beings is an abstract concept that may be useful for promoting a healthy lifestyle but impractical for this particular goal. On the other hand, the goal attainment model is more specific about the importance of scientific knowledge in nursing.
The third goal of the hospital is to achieve the advancement of practice utilizing formal and continuing education. Although the unitary human being theory promotes scientific knowledge, Rogers was not explicit about continuing education for nurses. On the other hand, according to King’s model, nurses should learn how to communicate with patients, which is impossible without constant education (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018). Indeed, improvements in nursing practice occurred through regular updates of knowledge and mastering skills.
According to the hospital goals to achieve superior patient outcomes, introduce evidence-based practices and continuous education, and become the healthcare center of choice, the new administrators want to reach the maximum potential. Furthermore, they strive to receive Magnet status, which requires substantial advancement of nursing practice in this hospital. These goals can be accomplished by introducing one of the nursing theories.
Since Rogers’ model is a more abstract description of the link between human health and the environment, it can encourage a healthier lifestyle among clinicians and patients. However, it is not suitable for promoting evidence-based practices and continuous education. King’s theory highlights the need for nurse-patient interaction, the use of scientific knowledge, and constant learning (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmouresi, 2018). Thus, it can be utilized to improve communication in the hospital to attain better health outcomes. Moreover, this model recommends using evidence-based information in nursing, making it suitable for these goals.
To sum up, many nursing theorists encouraged to apply science to improve patient outcomes. For example, Rogers’ model of unitary human beings claims that knowledge is vital for understanding various manifestation patterns that impact people’s health. However, the model that suits our hospital’s goals is King’s goal attainment theory that states that health outcomes depend on individual motivations and nurse-patient interaction.
Furthermore, King suggested that nurses should constantly learn to improve their communication with clients, adjusting their behavior based on scientific evidence. Nursing staff should also apply their knowledge to explain the treatment plan to patients and reach a consensus on therapeutic goals. Therefore, King’s theory can be utilized to transform our healthcare facility into an organization that uses recent clinical research as a guide to provide high-quality patient care.
Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Tahmouresi, M. (2018). Nurse-patient relationship based on the Imogene King’s theory of goal attainment. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 7(3), 141-144.
Bultemeier, K. (2017). Rogers’ science of unitary human beings in nursing practice. In M.R. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing theory (5th ed., pp. 245-262). Elsevier.
Jacob, S. R. (2018). Theories of nursing practice. In B. Cherry & S.R. Jacob (Eds.), Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management (8th ed., pp. 216-243). Elsevier.