In the present-day business world, employee satisfaction has become one of the key issues affecting the company’s performance. It is commonly defined as a positive state of mind that is caused by employees’ realization of their commitment to the company making a valuable contribution to its success that goes in hand with the achievement of personal goals (Guillon & Cezanne, 2014). This indicator is predetermined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including employees’ attitude towards their organization and its leaders, relationships with collegues, promotion prospects, workplace atmosphere, the company’s image, resources, training opportunities, security level, etc. (Shahzad, Khan, & Khan, 2015). The main objectives of the studies on the topic include the investigation of key incentives for workers of the public sector as compared to the private sector, the constituents of employees’ motivation and their ability to boost organizational performance, as well as dependent and independent variables measurements and their comparative significance.
The concept of job satisfaction is equally applicable to both private and public sector. However, some researchers assume that there are particular aspects that make the issue more complex in government agencies because of a greater influence external factors excert on employees (Ellickson & Logsdon, 2002). However, this conclusion is questionable and requires closer examination. Others believe that financial incentives are far less importart for public workers than such intrinsic factors as being proud of the company, having common goals, and showing mutual loyalty (Caillier, 2011). Finally, there also exists an assumption that it is impossible to identify which factors are predominant for such employees because of a huge number of diversified bodies that form the public sector (Blonski & Jefmanski, 2013). Almost all the researchers agree that the complexity of the issue accounts for the greater influence of job satisfaction in goverment-owned organizations. The methods used for data collection include literature reviews, survey questionaires, and focus group studies.
No matter how different public and private sectors may seem, they still share a set of common conditions that predermine job satisfaction. Among the most common are the following ones: commitment to the organization and motivation, successful performance , relations with co-workers and supervisor, salary, working environment, promotion, and status (Kazan & Gumus, 2013). However, some studies also name ability utilization, collaboration, independence, and creativity (Mafini & Pooe, 2013). Most researches agree on the conclusion that all the factors contribute positively to organizational performance. Despite this, the role of loyalty is questioned as in some cases it proves to be disfunctional (Guillon & Cezanne, 2014). There is also an opinion that job satisfaction does not have any influence on organizational performance whatsoever. The methods used are mostly quantitative, and include factor analysis, statistical correlation analysis, job diagnostic survey, etc. (Ibrahim, Al Sejini, & Al Qassimi, 2004).
All the above-mentioned factors refer to dependent variables, which implies they they vary across enterprises and are subject to changes. Among them, clear definition of work duties is considered to be the basic factor of job satisfaction among public sector employees (Caillier, 2011). Along with these parameters, there also exist demographic factors including age, gender, ethnicity, and others. As compared with the previous set, they have no connection with productivity (Guillon & Cezanne, 2014). However, some scientists conclude that even latent variables cannot be overlooked as they also affect the ultimate result (Bastari, Maarif, Puspitawati, & Baga, 2014). The multi-case study approach is implemented to collect the data.
There are two main gaps in all the investigated studies. The first one is connected with the negative effects of the factors identified on job satisfaction as all the researches focus on the positive impact. The second is the absence of practical offers about how to ensure the enhancement of organizational performance taking into account all the components of job satisfaction. Therefore, the primary objective of my study is to identify how government-run companies can use employee satisfaction as a working method of boosting their performance.
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