The disease is a lifetime disorder that leads to abnormal blood clotting in the human blood vessels. Blood clotting in the blood vessels causes complications in blood circulation to numerous organs in the body and to the tissues, too; poor blood circulation to some key body organs may result in multiple order dysfunction syndrome. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) ultimately occurs when the blood clotting proteins tend to overreact (Gando et al., 2016). Though it is not considered a disease, DIC is a life-threatening illness because it leads to blood vessels getting blocked hence poor blood flow to particular body organs, compromising blood leading to necrosis and ischemia of some body tissues.
Signs and Symptoms
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is classified into two clinical forms; Acute DIC and Chronic DIC; whereby Acute DIC is a disorder characterized by many bruises due to blood hemorrhaging. Chronic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation involves blood clots formation in the blood vessels.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation may include the following signs and symptoms bleeding from multiple places; this may include nose bleeding, excessive bleeding from any wounds on the body, heavy menstrual bleeding, bloody urine, gum bleeding, and severe bruising on the body (Boral et al., 2016). Another symptom of Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is abrupt fevers, and the fevers are usually high due to extreme general malaise. Signs and symptoms of chronic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation are; serial thrombotic episodes, shortness of breath, especially in the lungs, chest pains caused by the heart, and headaches caused by the brain. More signs and symptoms of chronic and Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation may include leg swelling and turning reddish, a stroke affecting speech, and locomotion.
Hematologic irrationalities that are being seen in DIC are due to mechanisms such as the tissue factor, which is seen through the mediated thrombin generation, Dysfunctional Physiologic anticoagulant mechanisms such as removal of fibers which are impaired, depression of protein C system and suppression of anti-thrombin, which are dysfunctional physiologic anticoagulant mechanisms, and inflammatory triggering which trigger the endothelial cells to release pro-inflammatory cytokines. Impaired fibrin is normally removed due to dejection of the fibrinolytic structure, and the impairment of the fibrinolytic system is primarily caused by high levels of circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor type1 (Gando et al., 2016). However, in some DIC cases, which are usually termed exceptional cases, bleeding may occur due to increased fibrinolytic activity.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation treatment includes treatment of underlying disorders and replacing blood platelets and fibrinogen and coagulation factors to control intense blood loss (Levi & Scully, 2018). There is also a second mode of treatment which involves using heparin as a therapy control technique for patients with gradually surfacing Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is detected based on the affected person’s health history, physical checkup, and test results. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation calls for an emergency medical treatment due to its life-threatening fact if not taken care of on the spot (Levi & Scully, 2018).
Generally, disseminated Intravascular Coagulation comes about as a difficulty of altered severe and life frightening diseases such as cancer or even damaging some body organs. Pregnancy complications and injuries from accidents can also cause the disease; the inflammation and trauma from an accident may stimulate changes in the blood clotting process. Proper treatment of all illnesses linked with DIC reduces the risk of an individual suffering from the disease.
Boral, B. M., Williams, D. J., & Boral, L. I. (2016). Disseminated intravascular coagulation. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 146(6), 670-680.
Gando, S., Levi, M., & Toh, C. H. (2016). Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2(1), 1-16.
Levi, M., & Scully, M. (2018). How I treat disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology, 131(8), 845-854.