The Data Collection Procedure in a Systematic Overview
Data collection entails gathering and measuring data on specific variables relevant to the study in a systematic manner to ensure that research questions can be answered, hypotheses can be tested, and results can be evaluated. While various methods of data collection are available, the major factor for consideration is data accuracy and reputable gathering processes.
Step 1: Determining priority issues for data collection
The research would involve needs assessment to collect data on evidence-based practice strategies to reduce the door-to-balloon time in the STEMI patients at a regional medical center.
STEMI patients provide opportunities for data collection to understand strategies for reducing the door-to-balloon at the facility. As such, the regional medical center will have an opportunity to develop policies, STEMI programs, and services that are available and effective to meet the needs of STEMI patients.
Step 2: Data collection goal setting
Data collection goals will focus on specific issues individualized for strategies to reduce the door-to-balloon time in the STEMI patients.
Research objectives and questions would guide data collection to answer research questions. Overall, the collected data will rationally reflect the research goals and the vital reason for conducting the study.
Step 3: A plan and an approach method for data collection
The researcher would focus on participants/groups of interests, data collection techniques, data points, and data collection period among others.
The groups of interests would include patients, physicians/nurses, and hospital administrators.
Various techniques, including interviews and document reviews, would be used to collect data from critical data points within sufficient time. In addition, the observational study would be conducted on patients presented to the ER within 12 months for emergency treatment on STEMI cases.
Data will be collected from all patients who will arrive at the ED with the diagnosis of STEMI and have an emergency cardiac catheterization PTCA.
A mixed-method approach would be used for the design from vital data points. Pre-existing data from nurse official documents would be collected. Data for door-to-balloon time for 12 months available in the nursing records would be collected from patients presented at the ED with STEMI (Mahler, Chan, Carden, Wolcott, & Conrad, 2010).
Step 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation
The collected data would be analyzed and interpreted to determine critical strategies for reducing door-to-balloon time. Thematic analysis will be performed for qualitative data to understand factors that influence door-to-balloon time for STEMI patients. The data analysis tool, SPSS will be used for quantitative analysis.
Step 5: Action on results
Research findings would be used to offer a solid ground for developing effective strategies designed to reduce door-to-balloon time for STEMI patients (Coyne, et al., 2015).
The rationale for the Data Collection Tool and Procedure
It is expected that the data collection tool – interview questionnaire will have a set of specific questions on techniques used to reduce door-to-balloon time for STEMI patients. The interview will be used to collect in-depth information on the subject.
A review of available nursing records will provide specific data on door-to-balloon time collected by nurses during routine management of STEMI patients at the ED. This mode of the collection will also apply to available written information on the subject matter.
The procedure for a mixed-methods design will ensure that both quantitative and qualitative data are collected on strategies for reducing door-to-balloon time for STEMI patients.
Specific Information for Collection from the Target Audience
Only information relevant to the study subject – strategies for reducing door-to-balloon time will be gathered. Data on time (minutes) collected by nurses during normal STEMI patients’ management are necessary to determine a median time for door-to-balloon (Blankenship, et al., 2011). Additionally, interviews would provide in-depth information on STEMI patient management issues related to door-to-balloon time (Biancardi, 2013).
A list of both the demographic and Content Knowledge
Data will be collected from patients with diverse demographic characteristics in terms of all ages, male, female, and possible history of cardiovascular diseases in the family (Hosseini, et al., 2011). In addition, participants would include patients who had experienced cardiac arrest; shock, without aortic dissection; and patients who arrived after 12 hours after the start of the pain and went through primary PCI because of pain or cardiac complications (Hosseini, et al., 2011). Patients transferred from other facilities or for rescue because of failed thrombolysis would not be considered because the ED would not be responsible for their care. The median time for DTB will be assessed (Ali, et al., 2012).
Participants would be STEMI patients with primary PCI treatment within 24 hours after the onset whose data on DTB are recorded. Data will cover demographic characteristics, angiographic, and procedural processes.
Data Collection from the Target Audience and Data Analysis
Data on participants’ demographic, angiographic, and procedures at the ER would be collected from databases and charts (Shiomi, et al., 2012).
During the study, nurses will record DBT time in their database after the onset of angiography.
Time presented in minutes would reflect the median times for DTB. Median time would be analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test, any categorical data would be analyzed using chi-square test while continuous data for standard deviation would be analyzed using t-test. SPSS will be used for all data analyses (Willson, et al., 2010).
Thematic analyses would be considered for qualitative data.
Barriers to Data Collection at the Agency
Nurse acceptance, hospital structure, and culture influence how effectively they can collect reliable data for quality improvement. In addition, it would be difficult to gather data that cannot be specifically linked to a single physician when a team is involved. Such data are necessary when evaluating competencies. When the process is perceived as difficult and inconsistent, then meaningful data may not available.
When DTB for STEMI patients is voluntary, then this could lead to poor collection and missing data. As such, data may be difficult to gather, link, analyze, interpret, and report (Nancarrow, 2013).
Incomplete clinical documentation, poor coding, a lack of performance measures, and poor policies on data collection and usage of such data for improvement may affect documentation and quality of data. Poor data collection in healthcare facilities could be occasioned by lack of understanding on data collection on electronic systems and possible value of such data on improving quality of care.
Healthcare facilities also face economic pressures. As such, allocating adequate resources to enhance data collection could be difficult. Healthcare facilities strive to meet standards required under performance measures, for instance, less than 90 minutes DTB for STEMI patients (Wilson, et al., 2013). The cost of collecting reliable data could further complicate financial conditions. In addition, costs related to data analysis, dissemination, and interpretation within a given facility render data collection irrelevant all together.
Ali, M. J., Zelevinsky, K., Normand, S.-L. T., Lovett, A., Nedeljkovic, Z. S., & Jacobs, A. K. (2012). Trends in Door-to-Balloon Time and Mortality in STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary PCI in Massachusetts. Circulation, 126, A18556.
Biancardi, M. A. (2013). Door-to-balloon time in primary percutaneous coronary itervention for patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Malta Medical Journal, 25(4), 2-9.
Blankenship, J. C., Scott, T. D., Skelding, K. A., Haldis, T. A., Tompkins-Weber, K., Sledgen, M. Y.,… Berger, P. B. (2011). Door-to-Balloon Times Under 90 Min Can Be Routinely Achieved for Patients Transferred for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Rural Setting. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57(3), 272-279.
Coyne, C. J., Testa, N., Desai, S., Lagrone, J., Chang, R., Zheng, L., & Kim, H. (2015). Improving Door-to-balloon Time by Decreasing Door-to-ECG time for Walk-in STEMI Patients. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(1), 184-9.
Hosseini, S. K., Soleimani, A., Salarifar, M., Pourhoseini, H., Nematipoor, E., Abbasi, S. H., & Abbasi, A. (2011). Demographics and Angiographic Findings in Patients under 35 Years of Age with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Journal of Tehran University Heart Center, 6(2), 62–67.
Mahler, S. A., Chan, H. Y., Carden, D. L., Wolcott, C., & Conrad, S. A. (2010). Emergency Department Activation of Interventional Cardiology to Reduce Door-to-Balloon Time. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11(4), 363–366.
Nancarrow, S. A. (2013). Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 6, 1–16.
Shiomi, H., Nakagawa, Y., Morimoto, T., Furukawa, Y., Nakano, A., Shirai, S.,… Kimura, T. (2012). Association of onset to balloon and door to balloon time with long term clinical outcome in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction having primary percutaneous coronary intervention: observational study. BMJ, 344, e3257. Web.
Willson, A. B., Mountain, D., Jeffers, J. M., Blanton, C. G., McQuillan, B. M., Hung, J.,… Nguyen, M. C. (2010). Door-to-balloon times are reduced in ST-elevation myocardial infarction by emergency physician activation of the cardiac catheterisation laboratory and immediate patient transfer. Medical Journal of Australia, 193(4), 207-212.
Wilson, B. H., Humphrey, A. D., Cedarholm, J. C., Downey, W. E., Haber, R. H., Kowalchuk, G. J.,… Garvey, L. (2013). Achieving Sustainable First Door-to-Balloon Times of 90 Minutes for Regional Transfer ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 6(10), 1064-1071.